The mission of Digital Grammars is to develop reliable solutions for the multilingual market. We offer:

Our solutions are available both as stand-alone programs, web APIs, and mobile apps with text and speech input and output. They are highly multilingual: we are ready to target over 30 languages.


December 2017: John J. Camilleri joins the company on a full-time basis.
10-11 October 2017: Ambulance translator app presentation at Medicinteknikdagarna in Västerås, Sweden.
12 June 2017: Explainable Machine Translation presentation at LaML-2017 in Gothenburg, Sweden.
14-25 August 2017: Digital Grammars sponsors the Fifth GF Summer School in Riga, Latvia.
22-24 May 2017: Digital Grammars sponsors NoDaLiDa 2017 in Gothenburg, Sweden.
25-27 July 2016: Digital Grammars sponsors CNL-2016 in Aberdeen, Scotland.
31 May 2016: Digital Grammars presentation at EAMT-2016 in Riga, Latvia.
26 May 2016: Grammatical Framework presentation at foss-north in Gothenburg, Sweden.


XMT = Explainable Machine Translation

Digital Grammars uses a translation technique that one can rely on. The translation is not given by a black box, but by a structured pipeline in which every step can be verified. This technique, Explainable Machine Translation, is an example of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). The importance of XAI is increasing as more and more critical tasks are performed by machines.

Our translation solutions are tailored for customers, to follow your terminology and style guidelines. You can safely use them to publish your content, with no or just a little manual corrections (post-editing). Our translation tools assess the confidence of translations, so that post-editors can focus on those parts that might need attention.

Digital Grammars translation solutions are highly multilingual, with a potential for over 30 languages. The more languages you need, the more cost-efficient it is to use our solutions.

Our translation is based on meaning: we analyse the content of the source text and render the same meaning in the target language.

XMT Slides

DDD = Data-Driven Documentation

The core of meaning-based translations is the technique of Data-Driven Documentation. In many cases, this core technique can eliminate text-to-text translation entirely: the translations are generated automatically, directly from data. Data-Driven Documentation is faster, cheaper, and more reliable than traditional text-based translation, since it eliminates the uncertainty involved in interpreting a text.

Data-Driven Documentation is applicable if your content already exists as machine-readable data: for instance, databases, product catalogues, financial reports and sports results.

The technology also supports text robots, which produce text in real time from streamed data - of course in many parallel languages if you want.

Data-Driven Translation can be smoothly combined with translation, if your content is a mixture of free text and data.

DDD Slides

Natural language reasoning and question answering

The meaning analysis used in Data-Driven Documentation also makes it possible to process queries. The queries can be very accurate and complex, similarly SQL queries in a database. This is much more powerful than usual string-based search.

Digital Grammars search and question answering is of course multilingual: your customers can make the queries in their own languages, and they will get answers in the same language. But the answers can be found in a set of sources written in other languages.

Available formats

All of our produces can be delivered in different formats:


TD (Accessibility Database)

TD (Tillgänglighetsdatabase, Accessibility Database), is a web service that gives information related to accessibility to buildings and services. TD is a unit of the Västra Götaland regional government in Sweden.

Digital Grammars has built a second generation of translations for TD, addressing Finnish, German, and Spanish. These translations are used in the TD web page, which however also has translations coming from other sources (mainly manual).


Talkamatic is a company addressing voice communication in mobile, web, and automotive applications.

Digital Grammars has made the Talkamatic Dialogue Management multilingual by extending it from English and Swedish to Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Italian, and Spanish.


DART is a team of assistive technology experts under the Department of Neurology, Psychiatry and Habilitation of Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Digital Grammars works for DART within the InLife project (INdependent LIving support Functions for the Elderly). Starting from a list of 2000 words and phrases, we have developed a translator and natural language generator for English, Finnish, German, Slovene, and Swedish.


In Spring and Summer of 2017, Digital Grammars builds a mobile translation app that allows health care staff to communicate with patients with whom they don't have a common language. The app is based on the SBAR question-answer protocol (Situation, Background, Actual information, Recommendation). It enables both text and speech translation. The project is carried out in cooperation with Sahlgrenska Ambulans in Gothenburg, Medtech West, and PreHospen at the University of Borås.

Legal language

Starting in Autumn 2016, Digital Grammars works with law professionals on the translation and logical analysis of legal language. Our current law customers are based in Switzerland and in the USA.


A public demo of one of our largest GF projects so far, the GDPR lexicon

More information can be found on the demo page at



Digital Grammars builds on the Grammatical Framework, GF, which is a software system for multilingual translation and other applications of grammars. GF works in the same way as compilers, which translate program code into machine code. The translation is based on an abstract semantic representation, which guarantees that the source and the target have the same meaning. This model for processing is perfect for the main mission of Digital Grammars - to create language technology that one can rely on.

The key to reliability is the development of technologies that can be understood and where problems can be traced back to their origins. The proliferation of statistical methods in language technology led to a situation where the outcome of a process is hard to predict and almost impossible to control. In exchange, statistical methods give us robust systems with wide coverage but at the cost that certain error rate must be tolerated. In Digital Grammars we bet on carefully designed and verified language resources which give us high precision. Since we focus on producer oriented translation, we sometimes sacrifice coverage for precision. We still welcome statistical methods for rapid bootstrapping of new resources or in situations where we have to deal with incomplete information.

GF has been applied to over 30 languages and has large resources for processing them. The GF community has over 100 active members around the world. In addition to this, Digital Grammars has expert knowledge about the rich language resources of Språkbanken, the Swedish Language Bank, which is a leading producer of resources for Swedish. The cooperation between GF and Språkbanken has long traditions within the Centre for Language Technology at the University of Gothenburg.


Explainable Machine Translation by Aarne Ranta. Abstract of an invited talk given at LaML-2017, Gothenburg. abstract.

Data­Driven Documentation: A Technique for Reliable Multilingual Information Access by Aarne Ranta. Abstract of keynote talk given at PIC-2015, Nanjing. pdf.

Grammar Engineering for a Customer: a Case Study with Five Languages. By A Ranta, C Unger, DV Hussey - ACL/GEAF 2015, 2015. pdf

Embedded Controlled Languages. By A Ranta - Controlled Natural Language, LNCS/LNAI 2014. pdf

Speech-enabled hybrid multilingual translation for mobile devices. By K Angelov, B Bringert, A Ranta - EACL 2014, 2014. pdf


Aarne Ranta, CEO, is also responsible for grammar resources. He invented the GF programming language in 1998 when working at Xerox Research Centre in Grenoble. He has worked at Chalmers since 1999 and is currently Professor of Computer Science at the University of Gothenburg. He coordinated the European MOLTO project (Multilingual On-Line Translation) in 2010-2013, when many of the ideas now put into use in Digital Grammars were born. More...

Markus Forsberg, Board Chairman. He is Associate Professor of natural language processing and Director of Språkbanken Text (the Swedish Language Bank) at University of Gothenburg. His research is focused on language technology for Swedish throughout the ages and LT-based research infrastructures. He got a PhD in Computer Science at Chalmers University of Technology in 2007. More...

Thomas Hallgren, founder and former Vice President, quit 2018.

Krasimir Angelov, CTO, is also responsible for the translation architecture and mobile applications. He is Assistant Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Gothenburg. He has invented the algorithm for statistical parsing in GF and has made GF work on the large scale. He also has many years of industrial experience from SmartPro Ltd, Ontotext AD and Microsoft Research. He joined Chalmers University of Technology in 2008 and got a PhD there in 2012. More...


Digital Grammars is backed up by a world-wide community of open-source developers, who are hired as consultants when native speaker knowledge is needed of the customer's languages. This community is an efficient network, which enables us to find the consultants we need as a matter of days.

Digital Grammars also wants to give something back to the community. In addition to creating job opportunities, we sponsor research events and open source language software.



Surface mail: Digital Grammars, Stena Center 1A, 41292 Göteborg, Sweden.

Bankgiro: 533-8066

Digital Grammars Gothenburg AB, 556964-3249